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Young Students


Below are some typical speech and language norms


By 12 months your baby should be able to;

  • Combine sounds and gestures eg points to something and makes a sound combination "ahha"

  • Start using single words ; e.g. mum, dad, cat, car, more, go

  • Understand simple commands e.g " no"

  • Understand the names of familiar objects or people

  • Try to make familiar sounds eg animal/car sounds

By the age of TWO your toddler should be able to;

  • Name simple body parts

  • Listen to stories and name pictures

  • Understand simple sentences e.g " where's your hat?"

  • Use more than 50 words

  • Beginning to use two word combinations eg "milk gone", "no car", "mum fast"

  • Sing simple songs

  • Use some pronouns instead of names eg "he", "it"

By the age of THREE, your child should be able to;

  • Recognize their own needs, eg "hunger"

  • Follow directions

  • Use 3-4 word sentences eg " mummy juice all gone", " I get my car", "big truck goes fast"

  • Begin to use basic grammar

  • Asks lots of questions

  • Be understood by familiar adults



/p/ /m/ /h/ /n/ /w/ /b/ /d/ /t/ /y/


/k/ /g/ /f/ /s/ /z/ /sh/ /ch/ /j/


/l/ /s/ blends ( sp, sm, st, sn, sw, sk)




/r/, other blend sounds (bl, gl, fl, sl, pl, cl, br, gr, tr, dr, fr, pr, cr, tw, kw, spr, scr, spl, str, skw)



Phonological Processes

(please click the link to view common phonological processes)

By the age of FOUR, your child should be able to;

  • Understand shape and colour names

  • Understand some "time" words e.g. "lunchtime", "today"

  • Ask who, what and why questions

  • Use 4-5 word sentences

  • Use correct grammar with occasional mistakes e.g " she falled down"

  • Be understood by most people

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