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 Below are some typical speech and language norms




/p/ /m/ /h/ /n/ /w/ /b/ /d/ /t/ /y/


/k/ /g/ /f/ /s/ /z/ /sh/ /ch/ /j/


/l/ /s/ blends ( sp, sm, st, sn, sw, sk)




/r/, other blend sounds (bl, gl, fl, sl, pl, cl, br, gr, tr, dr, fr, pr, cr, tw, kw, spr, scr, spl, str, skw)



Phonological Processes  ( please click the link to view common phonological processes)


By 12 months your baby should be able to;

-Combine sounds and gestures eg points to something and makes a sound combination "ahha"

- Start using single words ; e.g. mum, dad, cat, car, more, go

-Understand simple commands e.g " no"

-Understand the names of familiar objects or people

- Try to make familiar sounds eg animal/car sounds


By the age of TWO your toddler should be able to;

-Name simple body parts

-Listen to stories and name pictures

-Understand simple sentences e.g " where's your hat?"

-Use more than 50 words

-Beginning to use two word combinations eg "milk gone", "no car", "mum fast"

-Sing simple songs

-Use some pronouns instead of names eg "he", "it"


By the age of THREE, your child should be able to;

-Recognize their own needs, eg "hunger"
-Follow directions

-Use 3-4 word sentences eg " mummy juice all gone", " I get my car", "big truck goes fast"

-Begin to use basic grammar

-Asks lots of questions

-Be understood by familiar adults


By the age of FOUR, your child should be able to;

- Understand shape and colour names

-Understand some "time" words e.g. "lunchtime", "today"
-Ask who, what and why questions

-Use 4-5 word sentences

-Use correct grammar with occasional mistakes e.g " she falled down"

-Be understood by most people


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